Below is an academic branding bibliography. For more information regarding branding post-secondary institutions click here.


Ali-Choudhury, R., Bennett, R., & Savani, S. (2009). University marketing directors’ views on the components of a university brand. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing6(1), 11-33.

Anctil, E. J. (2008). Selling higher education: Marketing and advertising America’s colleges and universities: ASHE Higher Education Report. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Temple, P. (2006).

Anderson, G. (2008). Mapping academic resistance in the managerial university. Organization, 15(2), 251–270.

Argenti, P. (2000), “Branding b-schools: Reputation management for MBA programs”, Corporate Reputation Review, 3(20), 171-8.

Bakewell, J, and M.F. Gibson-Sweet (1998), “Strategic marketing in a changing environment –are the new UK universities in danger of being “stuck in the middle”?” International Journal of Educational Management, 12(3), 108-113.

Balmer, J. M., & Liao, M. N. (2007). Student corporate brand identification: an exploratory case study. Corporate communications: an international journal, 12(4), 356-375.

Belanger, C., Mount, J., & Wilson, M. (2002). Institutional image and retention. Tertiary Education and Management, 8, 217–230.

Bennett, R., & Ali-Choudhury, R. (2009). Prospective students’ perceptions of university brands: An empirical study. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 19(1), 85-107.

Berger, K.A.,&Wallingford, H.P. (1996). Developing advertising and promotion strategies for higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 7(4), 61-72.

Berry, L.L. (2000), “Cultivating service brand equity”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 128-37.

Berry, L.L., & Neeli, B. (2003). Clueing in customers. Harvard Business Review, 81(2), 100 107.

Bok, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace: The commercialization of higher education. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Braunerhjelm, P. (2008). Specialization of regions and universities: the new versus the old. Industry and Innovation15(3), 253-275.

Brewer, D. J., Gates, S. M., & Goldman, C. A. (2002). In pursuit of prestige: Strategy and competition in U.S. higher education. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Bristow, D.N. (1998). Do you see what I see? The marketing lens model in an academic setting. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 8(4), 1–16.

Brookes, M. (2003). Higher education: Marketing in a quasi-commercial service industry. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing8(2), 134-142.

Bulotaite, N. (2003). University heritage—an institutional tool for branding and marketing.  Higher Education in Europe, 28(4), 6.

Bunzel, D. L. (2007). Universities sell their brands. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 16(2), 152-153. doi:10.1108/10610420710740034

Carrel, A.E., & Schoenbachler, D.D. (2001). Marketing executive MBA programs: A comparison of student and sponsoring organization decision considerations. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 11(1), 21–29.

Celly, K. S., & Knepper, B. (2010). The California State University: A case on branding the largest public university system in the US. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing15(2), 137-156.

Chapleo, C. (2002). Is branding in UK universities real? Education Marketing, 26, 28-30.

Chapleo, C. (2004). Interpretation and implementation of reputation/brand management by UK university leaders. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 5 (1), 7 – 23.

Chapleo, C. (2005). Do universities have ‘successful ’ brands? The International Journal of Educational Advancement, 6 (1), 54 – 64.

Chapleo, C. (2007). Barriers to brand building in UK universities. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Management, 12, 23 – 32.

Chapleo, C. (2011). Exploring rationales for branding a university: Should we be seeking to measure branding in UK universities? Journal of Brand Management, 18(6), 411-422. doi:10.1057/bm.2010.53

Chapleo, C., Carrillo Durán, M. V., & Castillo Díaz, A. (2011). Do UK universities communicate their brands effectively through their websites? Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 21(1), 25-46.

Christensen, L. T., Torp, S., & Firat, A. F. (2005). Integrated marketing communication and postmodernity: An odd couple? Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(2), 156–167.

Churchill, Gilbert A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.

Clayton, M. J., Cavanagh, K. V., & Hettche, M. (2012). Institutional branding: a content analysis of public service announcements from American universities. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education22(2), 182-205.

Coccari, R.L., & Javalgi, R.G. (1995). Analysis of students’ needs in selecting a college or university in a changing environment. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 6(3), 27–40.

Daun-Barnett, N., & Das, D. (2013). Unlocking the potential of the internet to improve college choice: A comparative case study of college-access web tools. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(1), 113-134.

Dawes, Philip L. and Jennifer Brown (2002). “Determinants of Awareness, Consideration and Choice Set Size in University Choice,” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 49-75.

Dawley, K. Successful branding is critical to colleges and universities seeking to prosper in challenging times. Boston Women’s Business. Retrieved January 12, 2014, from

De Chernatony, L., & Dall’Olmo Riley, F. (1999). Experts’ views about defining services brands and principles of service branding. Journal of Business Research, 46(2), 181–192.

Edmiston-Strasser, D. (2009). An examination of integrated marketing communication in U.S. public institutions of higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 19(2), 142-165.

Finch, D., McDonald, S., & Staple, J. (2013). Reputational interdependence: An examination of category reputation in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(1), 34-61.

Fickes, M. (2003). Solving the Mystery of Branding. College Planning & Management6(3), 16-20.

Freeman, I., & Thomas, M. (2005). Consumerism in education: A comparison between Canada and the United Kingdom. International Journal of Educational Management19(2), 153-177.

Garfield, T., Barker, M., & Graham, P. (1999). Measuring communication impact for university advertising materials. Corporate Communications: An International Journal4(2), 73-79.

Ghosh, A. K., Javalgi, R., & Whipple, T. W. (2008). Service strategies for higher educational institutions based on student segmentation. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(2), 238-255.

Gibbs , P. (2001). Higher education as a market: A problem or solution? Studies in Higher Education 26(1), 85 – 94.

Gibbs, P. (2011). An Aristotelian model for ethical higher education marketing: The role of practical wisdom. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 21(2), 203-214.

Goldstein, H., & Renault, C. (2004). Contributions of universities to regional economic development: a quasi-experimental approach. Regional studies, 38(7), 733-746.

Gopalan, S., Stitts, K., & Herring III, R. A. (2006). An exploratory investigation of the branding strategies of the top 50 global MBA programs. Journal of International Business Research5(2).

Gray, B. J., Fam, K. S., & Lianes, V. A. (2003). Branding universities in Asian markets. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 72(2), pp. 108-120.

Gupta, M., & Singh, P. B. (2010). Marketing & branding higher education: Issues and challenges. Review of Business Research, 10(1).

Guthrie, J., & Neumann, R. (2007). Economic and non-financial performance indicators in universities—the establishment of a performance-driven system for Australian higher education. Public Management Review, 9(2), 231–252.

Haytko, D. L., Burris, G., & Smith, S. M. (2008). Changing the name of a major university: A case study and how-to guide. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 18(2), 171-185.

Helgesen, Ø. (2008). Marketing for higher education: A relationship marketing approach. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 18(1), 50-78.

Hemsley-Brown, J. (2011). Market heal thyself: The challenges of a free market in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 21(2), 115-132.

Hemsley-Brown, J., & Goonawardana, S. (2007). Brand harmonization on the international higher education market. Journal of Business research, 60, 942–948.

Hemsley-Brown, J., & Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a competitive global marketplace: A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 316–338.

Heslop, L. A., & Nadeau, J. (2010). Branding MBA programs: The use of target market desired outcomes for effective brand positioning. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 20(1), 85-117.

Iqbal, M. J., Rasli, A. B. M., & Hassan, I. (2012). University Branding: A Myth or a Reality. Pak. J. Commer. Soc. Sci6(1), 168-184.

Ivy, J. (2001). Higher education institution image: A correspondence analysis approach. International Journal of Educational Management15(6), 276-282.

Jevons , C. (2006). Universities: A prime example of branding gone wrong. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 15 (7), 466 – 467.

Joseph, M., Mullen, E. W., & Spake, D. (2012). University branding: Understanding students’ choice of an educational institution. Journal of Brand Management20(1), 1-12.

Jongbloed, B. (2003). Marketization in higher education, Clarke’s triangle and the essential ingredients of markets. International Journal of Educational Management, 15(6), 110–135.

Judson, K. M., Aurand, T. W., Gorchels, L., & Gordon, G. L. (2008). Building a university brand from within: University administrators’ perspectives of internal branding. Services Marketing Quarterly30(1), 54-68.

Karrh, James A. (2000). “Evaluating Belief Strength and Consistency in the Assessment of University Image,” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 10 (2), pp.1-9.

Kirp, D. L. (2003). Shakespeare, Einstein, and the bottom line: The marketing of higher education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kittle, B. (2000). Institutional advertising in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 9 (4), 37–52.

Kittle, B., & Ciba, D. (2001). Using college web sites for student recruitment: A relationship marketing study. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 11(3), 17-37.

Klassen, M. (2002). Relationship marketing on the internet: The case of top and lower ranked universities and colleges. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 9, 81-85.

Klein, N. (2000). The Branding of Learning: Ads in Schools and Universities. No Logo, 87-105.

Klein, T. A., Scott, P. F., & Clark, J. L. (2001). Segmenting markets in urban higher education: Community-versus campus-centered students. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 11(1), 39-61.

Landrum, R.E., Turrisi, R. and Harless, C. (1998). University image: the benefits of assessment and modeling. Journal of Marketing Higher Education, 9, 53-68.

Lowrie, A. (2006). Branding higher education: Equivalence and difference in developing identity. Journal of Business Research, 60(9), 990–999.

Maringe, F., & Foskett, N. (2002). Marketing university education: The South African experience. Higher Education Review, 34(3), 18.

Maringe, F., & Mourad, M. (2012). Marketing for higher education in developing countries: Emphases and omissions. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 22(1), 1-9.

Mars, M. M. (2010). What’s behind the name? The intensification of co-branding in elite US colleges of business and education. Education, Knowledge & Economy4(1), 33-56.

Mazzarol, T. (1998). Critical success factors for international education marketing. International Journal of Educational Management, 12(4), 163.

Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (1999). Sustainable competitive advantage for educational institutions: A suggested model. The International Journal of Educational Management, 13(6), 287–300.

McAlexander, J. H., Koenig, H. F., & Schouten, J. W. (2005). Building a university brand community: The long-term impact of shared experiences. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 14(2), 61-79.

McAlexander, J. A., Keonig, H. F., & Schouten, J. W. (2006). Building relationship of brand community in higher education: A strategic framework for university advancement. International Journal of Education Advancement, 6(2), 107-118.

McAlexander, J. H., & Koenig, H. F. (2010). Contextual influences: Building brand community in large and small colleges. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 20(1), 69-84.

Melewar, T. C., & Akel, S. (2006). The role of corporate identity in the higher education sector: A case study. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(1), 41–57.

Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 26(1), 340–363.

Morphew, C. C., & Hartley, M. (2006). Mission statements: A thematic analysis of rhetoric across institution types. Journal of Higher Education, 77(3), 456–471.

Neidoo, V. (2007). Research on the flow of international students to UK universities determinants and implications. Journal of Research in International Education6(3), 287-307.

Neumark, V. What’s in a name? The value of a good university brand. The Guardian. Retrieved April 3, 2012, from

Newman, C. M. (2002). The current state of marketing activity among higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 12(1), 15-29.

Opoku, R ., Abratt , R ., & Pitt, L. (2006). Communicating brand personality: Are the websites doing the talking for the top South African Business Schools? Brand Management, 14 (1), 20 – 39.

Palalesi, L. M., Bower, B. L., & Schwartz, R. A. (2008). Underlying consumer-valuing structures of baby boomers as older adults in community colleges: A grounded theory. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(2), 256-291.

Pentina, I., & Neeley, C. (2007). Differences in characteristics of online versus traditional students: Implications for target marketing. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(1), 49-65.

Perlmutter, D. (2014, April 21). “Your College Needs a Brand. Help Create It.” Chronicle of Higher Education.

Pinar, M., Trapp, P., Girard, T., & Boyt, T. E. (2011). Utilizing the brand ecosystem framework in designing branding strategies for higher education. International Journal of Educational Management25(7), 724-739.

Pitt, L.F., Berthon, P., Spyropoulau, S., & Page, M.J. (2006). How well are business schools managing their brands? A research note. Journal of General Management, 31(3), 1–10.

Prugsamatz, S., Heaney, J., & Alpert, F. (2007). Measuring and investigating pretrial multi-expectations of service quality within the higher education context. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(1), 17-47.

Rosen, D. E., Curran, J. M., & Greenlee, T. B. (1998). College choice in a brand elimination framework: The administrator’s perspective. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 8(4), 61-81.

Rothblatt, S. (2008). Global branding and the celebrity university. Liberal Education94(4), 26-33.

Saeed, M. K., & Ehsan, U. (2010). Exploring the most important factors while branding the business schools. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 6(1), 36-43.

Schiffenbauer, A. (2001). Study all of a brand’s constituencies. Marketing News, 35(11), 17.

Sevier, R.A. (1994). Image is everything: Strategies for measuring, changing, and maintaining your institution’s image. College and University, 69(2), 60-75.

Sevier, R. A. (2001). Brand as relevance. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(3), 77-97.

Shah, A., & Laino, H. (2006). Marketing a U.S. university to international students: Which approach is best–standardization, adaptation, or contingency? An investigation of consumer needs in seven countries. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 16(1), 1-24.

Shemwell, D.J., & Yavas, U. (1996). Positioning of universities in the marketplace: An illustration of two analytic techniques. International Journal of Management, 13(1), 43–51.

Shoemaker, C., & Muston, R. (1998). Are you marketing focused? Profiling a marketing-focused institution. Marketing Higher Education, 12(9), 2-3.

Silva, A. K. (2013). Branding in universities: Analysis of its implementation and effectiveness. Journal of Global Business Management and Leadership-Student Publication1(1), 50.

Smith, K. (2003). Strategy development for incumbent urban universities: Moving forward in an increasingly competitive environment. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 12(2), 35-47.

Somers, M. J. (2009). Using the process of disruption to find new markets and to develop new marketing programs for management education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 19(2), 166-178.

Stensaker, B. (2007). The relationship between branding and organisational change. Higher Education Management and Policy, 19(1), 1–18.

Stride, H., & Lee, S. (2007). No logo? No way. Branding in the non-profit sector. Journal of Marketing Management23(1-2), 107-122.

Tas, A., & Ergin, E. A. (2012). Key factors for student recruitment: The issue of university branding. International Business Research5(10), 146.

Temple, P. (2006). Branding higher education: Illusion or reality? Perspectives: Policy & Practice in Higher Education, 10(1), 15–19. Universities are brands whether they like it or not. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 2013, from

Wæraas, A. (2009). Defining the essence of a university: lessons from higher education branding. Higher Education, 57(4), 449-462.

Wardley, L. J., Bélanger, C. H., & Leonard, V. M. (2013). Institutional commitment of traditional and non-traditional-aged students: A potential brand measurement? Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(1), 90-112.

Wasmer, D. J., & Bruner III., G. (1999). The antecedents of the marketing orientation in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 9(2), 93–105.

Watkins, B. A., & Gonzenbach, W. J. (2013). Assessing university brand personality through logos: An analysis of the use of academics and athletics in university branding. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 23(1), 15-33

Whisman, R. (2009). Internal branding: a university’s most valuable intangible asset. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18(5), 367-370. doi:10.1108/1061042091098184

Williams Jr, R., Osei, C., & Omar, M. (2012). Higher Education Institution branding as a component of country branding in Ghana: Renaming Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education22(1), 71-81.

Veloutsou , C , Lewis , J . W., & Paton, R . A. (2004). University selection: Information requirements and importance. The International Journal of Educational Management, 18 (3), 160 – 171.

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